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鱼类色素细胞及其生态学意义概述
于道德, 张少春, 刘洪军, 盖珊珊, 迟雯丹, 刘凯凯, 宋静静
0
(山东省海洋生物研究院)
摘要:
本文综述了鱼类色素细胞的起源、分类以及体色的生态学意义。作为脊椎动物最大的类群,鱼类具有六种起源于神经嵴的色素细胞,其中黑色素细胞、黄色素细胞、红色素细胞和蓝色素细胞含有相应色素物质,而彩虹细胞和白色素细胞是通过嘌呤类结晶体的反射作用呈色。色素细胞的数量、大小以及分布情况,加上不同发育时期的变化,决定了鱼类的体色的多样性。鱼类的体色作为视觉信号系统,在其生活史关键过程中都起到十分重要的作用,主要用于个体的生存和社会种群交流,具体可体现为模拟色、婚姻色等;而紫外体色大大拓展了鱼类视觉信号系统的范围,用于种群内部交流,具有较高的隐蔽性,是为躲避捕食者而形成的一种适应性策略。充分了解鱼类色素细胞的多样性以及体色形成的复杂性,可为深入探索鱼类行为学和种群交流提供科学基础,同时可为优质经济鱼类的人工繁育提供参考。
关键词:  鱼类  色素细胞  模拟色  婚姻色  体色形成机制  视觉信号系统
DOI:
投稿时间:2020-03-10修订日期:2020-05-08
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1406406),烟台科技计划(2018SFBF084, 2019ZDCX018)
Overview of fish pigment cells and the ecological significance
YU Dao-de, ZHANG Shao-chun, LIU Hong-jun, GAI Shan-shan, CHI Wen-dan, LIU Kai-kai, SONG Jing-jing
(Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province)
Abstract:
The origin and the classification of fish pigment cells are reviewed. As the largest groups of vertebrates, fish has six pigment cells originating from neural crest. The melanophores, xanthophores, erythrophores and cyanophores contain corresponding pigment material, while the iridophores and leucophores display the colors by reflection of purine crystals. The number, size and distribution of pigment cells at different developmental stages determine the diversity of body color of fish. As a visual signal system, the body color of fish plays an important role in key processes in its life history. The body color of fish is mainly used for individual survival and social population communication, which can be embodied in mimical colors, nuptial coloration. The ultraviolet body color greatly expands the scope of the fish visual signal system and is used for internal communication of the population. It has a high concealment and is an adaptive strategy formed to avoid predators. Fully understand the diversity of fish pigment cells and the complexity of body color formation, which can provide a scientific basis for the exploration of fish behavior and population exchange, and can provide a reference for the artificial breeding of high-quality economic fish.
Key words:  fish  pigment cell  mimical colors  nuptial coloration  body color formation mechanism  visual signal system

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