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北部湾近岸海域环境卫生风险状况、成因及对策
陈莹, 黎明民, 蓝文陆
0
(广西壮族自治区海洋环境监测中心站, 广西北海 536000)
摘要:
为了解北部湾近岸海域环境卫生风险及成因,提出针对性防范对策措施,采用2016年北部湾近岸海域枯水期、丰水期和平水期共3个水期的监测数据,分析粪大肠菌群污染的空间分布和季节变化特征,并将其与同期pH值、盐度、无机氮、活性磷酸盐、化学需氧量、石油类进行相关性分析。结果表明:粪大肠菌群具有典型的陆源污染特征,受其污染较大的海湾为防城港西湾、钦州湾和廉州湾,受污染海域给人体健康和贝类生食养殖带来一定的风险。粪大肠菌群以入海河流携带为主,沿岸的城市、港口码头也是主要的粪大肠菌群来源,海水养殖区较丰富的营养盐也为局部海区粪大肠菌群营造了较好的生长条件,导致河口、城市港口近岸及养殖区粪大肠菌群数量较高,卫生风险较大。根据不同区域粪大肠菌群的污染特点,应采取多样的防治对策。入海流域应加强流域畜禽养殖废水和农村生活污水治理,沿海城市应进一步完善污水收集处理设施和污水厂灭菌消毒设施,加强对集中养殖海区海产品粪大肠菌群的监测,防范环境卫生风险。
关键词:  北部湾近岸海域  粪大肠菌群  卫生风险  成因  防范对策
DOI:10.13657/j.cnki.gxkxyxb.20190515.001
基金项目:广西科技计划项目(桂科AA17129001,桂科AD17129041,桂科AB16380340和桂科AB18126075)资助。
Health Risk Status,Causes and Countermeasure in Coastal Environment of the Beibu Gulf
CHEN Ying, LI Mingmin, LAN Wenlu
(Marine Environmental Monitoring Center of Guangxi, Beihai, Guangxi, 536000, China)
Abstract:
In order to understand the environment health risk and it's causes of the coastal waters in the Beibu Gulf, the countermeasures were put forward pertinently. The monitoring data of dry season, wet season and normal season in the Beibu Gulf in 2016 were used to analyze the distribution and seasonal variation of fecal coliform bacteria, and estimate the environment health risk. Their correlation analysis with pH, salinity, inorganic nitrogen analysis of nitrogen, active phosphate, chemical oxygen demand and petroleum in the same period were carried out. The results showed that fecal coliform bacteria had typical land-based pollution characteristics, and the bays with greater pollution were the Fangchenggang Bay, Qinzhou Bay and Lianzhou Bay, which made some areas of the sea had certain risks to human health and shellfish raw food culture. Fecal coliform bacteria were mainly carried by rivers entering into the sea, and the cities and harbors along the coast were also the main sources of fecal coliform bacteria. The rich nutrients in marine aquaculture areas also provided good growth conditions for fecal coliform bacteria in some areas of the sea, which led to a higher population of fecal coliform bacteria and high environment health risk in estuaries, urban ports and aquaculture areas. According to the pollution characteristics of fecal coliform in different areas, various preventive measures should be taken. Treatment of livestock and poultry aquaculture wastewater and rural domestic sewage in coastal areas should be reinforced, the conditions of collection and disposal of sewage facilities and sterilization and disinfection facilities of sewage plants in coastal cities should be further improved, moreover, monitoring of fecal coliform bacteria in seafood should be strengthened in centralized aquaculture areas to prevent the occurrence of environmental sanitation.
Key words:  Beibu Gulf coastal area  fecal coliform bacteria  health risk  causes  preventive countermeasures

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